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Fig Cultivation in India with Complete Information

Fig is an Asian species belonging to the mulberry family. This plant is native to Western Asia and the Middle East. Farmers grow or cultivate this plant worldwide, either as an ornamental plant or as a fruit plant. The fig plant is deciduous and has fragrant leaves. The plant has now become naturalised in Asia and North America. The largest producers of figs globally are Spain, Egypt, Turkey and Algeria, accounting for about 58% of the total production. The total production of raw (fresh) figs worldwide is more than 1.05 million tonnes. In India, the fig is cultivated mostly in Maharashtra, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The total area under fig cultivation is about 5600 hectares with about 13,802 thousand tonnes, i.e. around 12.32 tonnes per hectare.

Process of Fig (Anjeer) Cultivation in India 

You need to know the crucial factor to help in profitable commercial fig farming when you start a plant to plant. We can provide relevant information related to more reliable tractors in fig farming. You can use the farmtrac 6055 tractor and many others, which aids in the whole process of fig cultivation. Here we are describing information about starting successful fig farming.

Plant and its Properties

Root system – Fibrous is the root system of a fig tree, and you can broaden it about 3 times that of its canopy. The roots are shallow and have no roots. Therefore, the roots can withstand poor soil conditions and moderate salinity levels. However, the roots are sensitive to nematodes when cultivated in light sandy soils.

Shoot and leaf systems – Fig trees can be either open and sloping or straight and compact. The growth habitat most probably depends on the type of farming. The trees are small to medium in size and reach a height of 6 to 8 metres. The tree leaves are large, bright green and singly or alternately arranged. The apical meristem develops into lateral growth during the spring and is known for bearing the terminal bud. At the base of the bud, there is one vegetative and two primordial inflorescences.

Soil and Climatic Requirements

The best soil type is a dip, non-alkaline clayey loam for growing fig trees. Soil with good water holding capacity and well-drained property is ideal for fig cultivation, especially medium black or alluvial clay loam soils. The soil with a pH level is approximately 5.5-8, and you must keep the depth of the soil around 1 m. The fig tree can tolerate a 9.5 to 12°C lower temperature range because it is a subtropical tree while in the mature stage and dormant. On the other hand, the tree in the growing stage requires protection from lower temperatures. Therefore, the optimum temperature for fig tree growth is 15.5 – 21 °C. Fig trees growing in mild tropical and subtropical regions exhibit certain characteristics such as:

  • Constantly growth during a certain part of the year
  • Fruiting and flowering during an indistinct period
  • Dormant period with barren limbs
  • Rest during a well-marked period

An area with a dry climate during fruit development and maturity is considered the best for fig trees. Fig trees in areas of high humidity with low temperatures usually produce cracked and low-quality fruit. Conversely, the trees thrive well in areas with hot and dry winds from April-June.

Propagation Methods of Fig

Various techniques are used for propagating fig-like hardwood cutting, budding, grafting and air layering. You should keep the size of hardwood cuttings about 20 to 30 cm long and 0.5 to 0.7 cm thick. You should take these cuttings from 1 to 2-year-old shoots, especially in the month of July to August. Farmers can root the cuttings by immersing them in damp sawdust or other media. It is also clearly observed that cuttings placed under the mist develop roots faster. 

Land preparation and Planting 

Before planting, you plough the land thoroughly before planting the root cuttings. The pits of 60 cm³ are dug at least one month before planting. The distance between plants should normally be 8 x 8 m, but a minimum distance of 6 x 6 m (dry area) is maintained. Fig varieties grown in India are planted at the height of 5-7 m for the best yield. You initially prepare these pits by filling them with compost and garden soil mixture. To keep the pits safe from termites, endosulfan is also treated at 100 grams per pit.

You should plant at a depth of 2 to 4 inches for the plants to have a high survival rate. You should handle the root cuttings with care to avoid root damage. Dig a pit deeper and wider than usual and keep the plants upright. The soil around the roots is rammed to pack the roots so that they come into proper contact with the moist soil. It is recommended to delay transplanting until the end of winter in cold weather. Going back or cutting rooted cuttings at planting time helps reduce water loss from plants and develop lateral branches.

Need Equipment Requirement 

When you want to get information about fig farming, you should also know the tools that will help in increasing the yield. Rotavators, cultivators, and tractors are essential in fig farming. However, of all the equipment, the tractor is the most important. Therefore, we recommend the Sonalika 60 tractor for fig cultivation in India.

For further information regarding fig farming in India, stay tuned with us.

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